Wat Chedi Luang, a significant historical landmark located in the heart of Chiang Mai, Thailand, was once one of the city’s most important temples. This incredible structure dates back to the 14th century and stands as a testament to the fascinating past and rich cultural heritage of the region.
The massive chedi (stupa) that gives the temple its name – Wat Chedi Luang, meaning “Temple of the Big Stupa” – was partially destroyed during an earthquake in the 16th century. Despite the damage, the site remains an important destination for both local residents practicing their religious beliefs and tourists seeking to experience the awe-inspiring architectural and artistic elements found in this ancient temple.
As visitors explore the impressive grounds of Wat Chedi Luang, they will encounter various aspects that reflect the influence of the Lanna Kingdom, the historic Northern Thai culture, as well as intriguing legends related to the temple. Whether visiting for spiritual, historical or architectural reasons, Wat Chedi Luang is truly a captivating destination to discover the enduring beauty and essence of Thailand’s past.
Wat Chedi Luang, situated in the heart of Chiang Mai, Thailand, is an iconic Buddhist temple with a rich history. It was originally constructed during the 14th century under the rule of King Saen Muang Ma, but its grand chedi (pagoda) wasn’t completed until the reign of his successor King Tilokaraj in the 15th century.
The temple was initially built to enshrine a precious relic, believed to be a piece of the Buddha’s shoulder bone. This made Wat Chedi Luang a significant religious site in Chiang Mai, attracting devotees and visitors from near and far. It once housed the sacred Emerald Buddha, which is now located in Wat Phra Kaew in Bangkok.
Over time, the chedi suffered significant damage from various events, including a massive earthquake in 1545 that resulted in the collapse of its top. Today, the chedi stands at around 60 meters high, shorter than its original height of about 80 meters. Despite its partially ruined state, it still retains its majestic appearance, reflecting the architectural grandeur of the Lanna Kingdom.
Throughout its history, Wat Chedi Luang has undergone several restoration efforts, the most notable of which took place in the 1990s, funded by UNESCO and the Japanese government. This restoration aimed to preserve the temple’s historical significance while maintaining its original Lanna-style architecture.
- Built during the 14th century under the rule of King Saen Muang Ma.
- Completed during the reign of King Tilokaraj in the 15th century.
- Originally housed a Buddha relic and the Emerald Buddha, which is now in Wat Phra Kaew, Bangkok.
- Significant damage and restoration occurred over time, including a major earthquake in 1545.
- Recent restoration efforts in the 1990s were supported by UNESCO and the Japanese government to preserve its Lanna-style architecture.
Architecture and Design
Wat Chedi Luang, located in the heart of Chiang Mai, is an iconic temple known for its impressive Lanna-style architecture. The temple dates back to the 14th century and showcases intricate designs and carvings influenced by the Lanna, Sukhothai, and later, the Ayutthaya styles.
The main feature of the temple complex is the impressive chedi or stupa, which dominates the skyline. Standing at 60 meters tall, it was once the tallest structure in Chiang Mai. The base of the chedi is adorned with elephant sculptures, while the upper part displays symmetrically placed niches containing Buddha statues.
The viharn, or the main prayer hall, is another essential part of the temple’s structure. Boasting an intricately carved, multi-tiered roof, the viharn houses a revered, large Buddha image called Phra Chao Attarot. This 14th century, cast bronze statue is seated in the bhumisparsha mudra, a gesture symbolizing the Buddha’s enlightenment.
Throughout the temple grounds, visitors will also observe other structures and elements indicative of Lanna-style aesthetics, such as:
- Wooden pillars with gold leaf applications
- Elaborate door and window frames
- Traditional, multi-tiered roofs
- Lanna-style chofa, or roof decorations
Significant restoration work has been undertaken over the years to maintain and preserve the beauty of Wat Chedi Luang’s architecture, keeping it vibrant and awe-inspiring for visitors from around the world to enjoy.
Wat Chedi Luang has undergone several restoration efforts to preserve its historic and cultural significance. The initial restoration project was undertaken in the early 1990s by the Fine Arts Department of Thailand and the UNESCO’s Japanese Funds-in-Trust.
During this project, the following improvements were made:
- Stabilization of the structure to prevent further deterioration
- Reconstruction of the Naga staircase using original materials found on-site
- Conservation of decorative elements and stucco reliefs
In the early 2000s, the Chiang Mai Cultural Council initiated a second phase of restoration, which focused on:
- Repairing damaged architectural elements
- Strengthening and restoring the brickwork
- Promoting sustainable tourism practices
- Improvements to the site’s landscaping and environment
As a result of these efforts, Wat Chedi Luang has become an important cultural attraction in Chiang Mai, offering visitors a glimpse into the history and architectural achievements of the ancient Lanna Kingdom.
Visiting Wat Chedi Luang
Wat Chedi Luang, located in the heart of Chiang Mai’s old city center, is an important and picturesque temple site that should not be missed on your visit to this historic city. With its massive, partially restored central chedi, the temple offers a glimpse into the past and a chance to learn about the city’s fascinating history.
The temple is open daily from 06:00 AM to 05:00 PM, and there is no entrance fee for local visitors. Foreign visitors are asked to make a small donation to help with the ongoing restoration and maintenance of the temple site.
While visiting, it is important to dress appropriately by covering your shoulders and wearing long pants or a skirt that covers the knees. This shows respect for the religious customs of Thailand and the sanctity of the temple. You may be asked to remove your shoes before entering some areas of the temple complex.
Some points of interest to look for while exploring Wat Chedi Luang include:
- The City Pillar Shrine: Located near the entrance of the temple, this sacred shrine houses the city pillar and is an important spiritual site for the people of Chiang Mai.
- The Reclining Buddha: An impressive statue of a sleeping Buddha can be found in a small area within the temple complex.
- Murals and carvings: Take a moment to appreciate the intricate artwork and beautiful stucco carvings that adorn many of the structures within the temple grounds.
Wat Chedi Luang also offers foreign visitors the opportunity to interact with local monks during their daily ‘Monk Chat’ sessions. These informal conversations are a chance for visitors to learn more about Buddhism, Thai culture, and the life of a monk.
Wat Chedi Luang, located in the heart of Chiang Mai, holds immense cultural significance to the local people and to the history of the Lanna Kingdom. Constructed in the 14th century, this Buddhist temple once housed the revered Emerald Buddha, which now resides at the Royal Palace in Bangkok.
The temple complex features various structures that showcase Lanna architecture, such as the main chedi, the Wihan Luang, and the city pillar. Each of these structures is adorned with intricate carvings and details that reflect the rich cultural heritage of the region.
Today, Wat Chedi Luang is not only a place for locals to practice their faith but also an educational center for young monks. As a visitor, you can engage in conversations with monks during the ‘Monk Chat’ program, providing a unique opportunity to gain insights into the traditions and beliefs of Thai Buddhism.
The temple also hosts a variety of festivals and events throughout the year, including:
- Visakha Bucha Day: A celebration of the Buddha’s birth, enlightenment, and passing into Nirvana, marked by candlelit processions and prayers.
- Asahna Bucha Day: Commemorating the Buddha’s first sermon, this event is marked by ceremonies, chanting, and offerings at the temple.
- Loy Krathong: A festival of light, during which time participants craft and release small floating offerings on water to pay respect to the river goddess and seek forgiveness for any environmental damages.
Wat Chedi Luang offers an authentic glimpse into the culture and history of Chiang Mai, providing visitors the opportunity to immerse themselves in the spiritual and architectural legacy of the Lanna Kingdom.